Low Salt Diet – This time we will discuss intake for people with hypertension. Hypertension is now a major problem for all of us because it is one of the entry points or risk factors for diseases such as heart disease, kidney failure, diabetes, and stroke.
Hypertension occurs in the age groups of 31–44 years (31.6%), 45–54 years (45.3%), and 55–64 years (55.2%). Of the 34.1% prevalence of hypertension, it is known that 8.8% of people were diagnosed with hypertension, 13.3% of people diagnosed with hypertension did not take medication, and 32.3% did not take medication regularly.
This shows that most people with hypertension do not know that they have the disease, so they do not get treatment.
What are the Causes of Hypertension?
- Family History
- Smoking Habits
- Excessive Salt Consumption
- Excessive Consumption of Saturated Fats
- The habit of drinking alcohol
- Lack of physical activity
If hypertension is severe or chronic and is not treated, the following symptoms may occur:
- Out of breath
- Vision becomes blurred
Be aware that an increase in blood pressure that lasts for a long time (persistent) can cause damage to the kidneys (kidney failure), heart (coronary heart disease), and brain (cause stroke) if not detected early and gets adequate treatment.
Here we will provide some dietary management for people with hypertension:
- Low Salt Diet
- Regular exercise at least 30 minutes a day
- Ideal weight
- Consuming drugs recommended by a doctor
A low-salt diet is given to patients with blood pressure above normal. What is meant by “salt” in a low-salt diet are sodium salts such as those found in table salt (NaCl), baking soda (NaHCO3), baking powder, sodium benzoate, and vets (monosodium glutamate)? Excessive sodium intake, especially in the form of sodium chloride (table salt), can cause disturbances in the body’s balance, causing edema or ascites and/or hypertension. WHO recommends limiting table salt consumption to no more than six salts per day, or the equivalent of one teaspoon.
The goal of the Low Salt Diet is to help lower blood pressure and eliminate fluid retention in the body, also known as edema or swelling. The cause of water retention in the body usually occurs due to the body’s failure to regulate fluid balance, as a result, the body is unable to remove excess sodium salt from the tissues. This sodium will bind water, causing fluid accumulation in the body.
What are the Requirements?
First, there should be adequate energy, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals, then low sodium amounts or adjustments for weight, at least for salt or water retention and/or hypertension.
Types of Low Salt Diets and Indications for Administration:
- Low Salt Diet I, is given to patients with edema, ascites, and/or severe hypertension. In food processing, table salt is not added.
- Low Salt Diet II, is given to patients with edema, ascites, and/or not-too-severe hypertension. In food processing, you may use ¼ teaspoon salt.
- Low Salt Diet III, is given to patients with edema, ascites, and/or mild hypertension. In food processing, you may use 1 teaspoon of table salt.
How to Set Up?
- The bland taste can be improved by adding brown sugar, granulated sugar, shallots, garlic, ginger, and other spices that do not contain sodium salt or a small amount.
- Food is better sautéed, fried, baked, or even without salt.
- Put salt on the food table, and use iodized salt no more than ½ tsp per day.
- Can use salt containing low sodium.
You can listen to the following Low Salt Diet Tips:
- Do not put salt on the dining table.
- Choose fresh vegetables and fruits.
- Adding flavor to food with herbs or spices other than salt, such as garlic, shallots, ginger, turmeric, salam, sugar, and so on.
- Snacks or snacks that do not contain a lot of salt such as fruit, fruit juice, pudding, boiled peanuts, etc.
- Avoid using tomato sauce, shrimp paste, pets, MSG, and tauco in the food you consume.
Example of a low salt diet for hypertension daily menu
- Breakfast: Porridge without coconut milk, boiled eggs, sweet tea
- Morning Snack: Fruit juice – Lunch: Beef soup, Carrots, Potatoes, Roasted chicken, Tempeh with yellow spices, Champagne champignons, melons
- Afternoon Snack: Fruit soup (filled with melon and papaya)
- Dinner: Rice, Zucchini Soun Soup, Pepes Fish, Omelette filled with tofu, Water gourd Champagne, Bananas.
By following a low-salt diet or diet, you can avoid various chronic diseases, and your body can become healthier. Want to know what are the benefits of a low-salt diet? Check out the following reviews.
1. Lowers Blood Pressure
According to research, a low-salt diet has benefits for lowering blood pressure. Although the reduction is not large, it is very beneficial for the health of people with hypertension (high blood pressure).
According to a review of 34 studies, reducing salt intake for 4 weeks or more can lower blood pressure in healthy people and hypertensive patients.
The conclusion of the study reported that hypertensive patients who had a low-salt diet experienced a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 5.39 mmHg and a diastolic pressure of 2.82 mmHg.
2. Reducing the Risk of Cancer
In terms of 76 studies, consuming too much salt is closely related to cancer risk.
For people who consume salt beyond normal limits (approximately 5 grams of excess sodium per day), the risk of getting colon cancer also increases to 12 percent.
This is because salt consumption can damage the mucous lining of the stomach, increase the risk of inflammation, and support the growth of H. pylori bacteria. These conditions can all increase the risk of colon cancer.
On the other hand, eating foods low in salt can reduce the risk of cancer. Foods that are recommended to reduce the risk of cancer are fruits and vegetables.
3. Improve Diet Quality
Packaged foods, fast food, and frozen foods generally have fairly high salt, fat, and calorie content. Most of these foods are often associated with the risk of obesity and other chronic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease.
When you stop eating these unhealthy foods, you are indirectly helping to improve your nutritional intake and the overall quality of your diet.
4. Maintain Heart and Blood Vessel Health
Not only controlling blood pressure, another benefit of a low-salt diet is preventing damage and heart attacks.
Because the condition of hypertension is closely related to high cholesterol levels. When the body’s cholesterol levels are high, the buildup of plaque and fat in the blood vessels also increases. As a result, you are at risk of having a heart attack or damage.
5. Forms Stronger Bones
Another low-salt diet benefit is strengthening bones. You need to know, salt has ionic properties that can control how much calcium is pulled from the bones.
Calcium is an important component for strengthening bones and preventing osteoporosis. Therefore, limit salt intake so that the calcium supply is not lost and the bones remain strong.
If you’re following a low-sodium diet, choose fresh foods and avoid processed foods that taste savory and salty. So that salt intake is more controlled, try to cook your food menu at home.
1. Chili and Spices
One of the tricks to reduce the use of salt in cooking is to highlight other flavors. According to a study, making dishes with a prominent spicy taste can reduce the tongue’s desire to taste salt.
You can use chilies and spices while cooking to get a stronger taste of the dish. Examples of spices that can be used include celery, green onions, shallots, onions, bay leaves, pepper, and other cooking ingredients.
2. Reduce Gradually
So that your tongue and body are not shocked, you should reduce your salt intake gradually. For example, if you are used to putting two spoons of salt in your cooking, try reducing it to one and a half spoons first for a week. After that reduce it to one spoonful.
3. Keep the Salt Away
Try to keep salt away, including outside the kitchen. Do not put spices that contain sodium, such as salt, ketchup, or soy sauce, on the dining table. Because, when all these spices are available, someone will usually tend to grab them and mix them in food.
4. Cook Yourself
Another effective tip for reducing salt is to make your food be consumed. That way, you can measure how much additional seasoning goes into the dish.
You can also modify recipes, such as reducing the amount of salt and seasonings that contain sodium, up to half the amount written in the recipe.
5. Multiply Fruits and Vegetables
A study conducted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, United States of America, found that a diet that recommends that a person increase their intake of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains is effective in avoiding the desire to consume salt. The results are very significant for the body and health conditions.
Limiting salt consumption to only 1,500 mg per day can lower blood pressure in people with hypertension. When you cut back on salt regularly, the decrease in systolic blood pressure decreased by an average of 11.5 mmHg.
6. Avoid Canned Food
Packaged food and canned food are also types of food that contain hidden salt. Even more dangerous, the salt in processed foods will usually exceed the limits the body needs more quickly. Eventually causing the salt content to soar and experience excess.
7. Read Labels
If forced to choose packaged food, make sure you pay close attention to the label containing the food content. Check the food you are going to buy has a low salt content.
8. Being a Little Talkative
When buying food or eating out of the house, don’t forget to order food makers to reduce added salt to your food. It’s okay to be a little fussier to avoid the risk of disease.